Ramáyana Book I: Boyhood: Ancilliaries – Glossary of Important Proper Nouns and Epithets

Aditidaughter of Dakṣa, wife of Kāśyapa, and mother of the gods
Agastyafamous sage, son of Mitra-Varuṇa and Urvaśī
Agnigod of fire
Ahalyāwife of Gautama, cursed by her husband after she was seduced by the god Indra
Aikṣvākadescendant of Ikṣvāku, used mainly of Daśaratha and Rāma
Amarāvatīthe city of the god Indra
AmbarīṣaEarly king of Ayodhyā and ancestor of Rāma. He buys Śunaḥśepa, son of Ṛcīka, to replace his sacrificial victim
AṃśumantAsamañja’s son, king of Ayodhyā after Sagara
Anaṅga“bodiless,” an epithet of Kāma, god of love
Anasūyāwife of the sage Atri, famous for her devotion and chastity
Aṅgacountry where Romapāda ruled
Aṅgadason of Vālin and general in Sugrīva’s army
apsarasescelestial maidens or nymphs, known for their beauty; frequently seen in the service of superior gods, especially Indra
AsamañjaSagara’s eldest son
Aśoka grovesite of Sītā’s confinement in the city of Laṅkā
Aśvinstwin deities of the vedic pantheon renowned for their beauty
asurasa class of demons, the elder brothers of the gods
Ayodhyācapital city of the Ikṣvākus
Balademon slain by Indra. “Slayer of Bala” is a common epithet of Indra
BaliBali Vairocana, king of the asuras
Bhagīrathason of Dilīpa and great-great-grandson of Sagara
Bhāgīrathīepithet of the Ganges
BharataDaśaratha’s second son by Kaikeyī
Bharadvājaa sage who tells Rāma how to reach Mt. Citrakūṭa
Bharadvājaa young disciple of Vālmīki
Bhārgavaname of a powerful brahman family descended from the sage Bhṛgu. As a patronymic, it can refer to any descendant of that family
Bhavaepithet of Śiva
Bhṛgua great brahman sage, patriarch of the Bhārgava family
Bibhīṣaṇaa variant of the name Vibhīṣaṇa
Bindulake into which Śiva released the river Ganges
Brahma(n)a name for the Indian religio-philosophical concept of the impersonal and attributeless absolute principle underlying existence
Brahmāthe creator divinity of the Hindu “trinity” who is regarded as the “Grand-father” of all living creatures
Brahmadattaa king, son of Cūlin, who marries the daughters of Kuśanābha
Citrakūṭamountain ‘where Rāma, Sītā, and Lakṣmaṇa first live during their exile
Cūlina sage, father of Brahmadatta
daityasa class of demons descended from Diti
Dakṣaone of the ten mind-born sons of Brahmā: he is said to have had many daughters
dānavasa class of demons descended from Danu
Daṇḍaka forestthe forest where Rāma, Sītā, and Lakṣmaṇa spend part of their exile
DaśarathaRāma’s father and king of Ayodhyā
Dāśarathiany descendant of Daśaratha, used of Daśaratha’s four sons, especially Rāma
Ditiname of a goddess, mother of the demons known as daityas
Dundubhiname of a demon slain by Vālin. Rāma kicks the corpse of Dundubhi to demonstrate his strength to Sugrīva
Dūṣaṇaa general in Khara’s army in Janasthāna
Gādhison of Kuśanābha and father of Viśvāmitra and his elder sister Satyavatī
gandharvasa class of semi-divine beings known for their musical abilities. Gandharva women are noted for their beauty
Gangesa famous and important river of ancient and modern India, which is personified as the daughter of Mt. Himalaya. She is the sister of Pārvatī
Garuḍaname of the king of the birds. Brother of Sumati, Sagara’s younger wife. Viṣṇu’s mount
Gautamaa sage, husband of Ahalyā and father of Śatānanda
Ghrtācīan apsaras who is the mother of Kuśanābha’s one hundred daughters
Guhaking of the Niṣādas and lord of Śrṅgavera; an ally of Rāma. who assists him during his exile
Haimavatīdaughter of Himavant (Himalaya), epithet of Umā or her sister, the river Ganges
HanumānRāma’s monkey companion who aids in the finding of Sītā and the destruction of the demon king Rāvaṇa
Haraepithet of Śiva
Himalayaname of a mountain range and king of the mountains. He has two daughters: Siva, the wife of Śiva, and the river Ganges
Himavantvariant of Himalaya
Ikṣvākufamily name of the royal house of Ayodhyā
Indraking of the gods who leads their hosts into battle against the asuras: in the postvedic tradition he is particularly noted for his incontinence and adultery
Indrajitepithet of Meghanāda, son of Rāvaṇa
Jāhnavīepithet of the Ganges
Jāmadagnyasee Rāma Jāmadagnya
Jambudvīpathe Indian subcontinent
Janakalord of Mithilā and the father of Sītā
Jānakīepithet of Sītā, daughter of Janaka and wife of Rāma
Janasthānapart of the Daṇḍaka forest and residence of Śūrpaṇakhā, sister of Rāvaṇa, and her brother Khara
Jaṭāyusa vulture, friend of Daśaratha
Jayādaughter of Dakṣa, wife of Brahmā, and mother of the divine weapons
Kabandhaname of a rākṣasa slain by Rāma
Kaikeyīyounger wife of Daśaratha and mother of Bharata
Kailāsamountain peak in the Himalayas where Śiva and Pārvatī are traditionally said to reside. Kubera, the lord of wealth, is also said to reside there
Kākutsthadescendant of Kakutstha, a common epithet of princes of the Ikṣvāku dynasty, especially Rāma and his brothers
Kālatime incarnate, name of the god of death
Kāmagod of love
Kandarpaepithet of Kāma
Kapilaa sage who burns the sixty thousand sons of Sagara for disturbing his penances
Kārtikeyason born from Śiva’s semen; his step-mothers were the Kṛttikās, the Pleiades
KāśyapaMārīca Kāśyapa, name of a famous sage, husband of Diti and Aditi
Kāśyapafather of Vibhāṇḍaka, grandfather of Ṛśyaśṛṅga
Kausalyāsenior wife of Daśaratha. mother of Rāma
Kauśikaany descendant of Kuśa, generally used in reference to Viśvāmitra
Kauṣṭubhaprecious gem produced from the churning of the ocean
Kāvyason of Bhṛgu, usually called Uṣanas Kāvya or Śukra, preceptor of the asuras and other demons
Kāvya’s motherthe wife of Bhṛgu, who is said to have had her head severed by Viṣṇu
Keśinīelder wife of Sagara
Kharabrother of Rāvaṇa and Śūrpaṇakhā. He was slain by Rāma in the Daṇḍaka forest
kinnarasmythical creatures with the head of a horse and a human body; the kinnara women are famed for their beauty
Kiṣkindhāa city (sometimes a cave) inhabited by the monkeys
Kosalaname of the kingdom of the Ikṣvākus
Kṛśāśva’s sonsthe personified weapons Viśvāmitra gives Rāma
Krttikāsthe Pleiades, step-mothers of Kārtikeya
Kuberagod of wealth, son of Viśravas and step-brother of Rāvaṇa. Kubera is the king of the yakṣas and the kinnaras
Kumāraname of Śiva’s son. See Kārtikeya
Kumbhakarṇabrother of Rāvaṇa, known for his great size
Kuśaa great sage, the mind-born son of Brahmā; his great-grandson is Viśvāmitra
KuśaRāma’s son, twin brother Lava. Together they recite the Rāmāyaṇa
KuśadhvajaJanaka’s younger brother and ruler of Sāṃkāśya. His two daughters, Māṇḍavī and Śrutakīrtī, marry Bharata and Śatrughna, respectively
Kuśanābhason of Kuśa, fathers one hundred daughters on the apsaras Ghrtācī, and is the father of Gādhi
Lakṣmaṇason of Daśaratha by Sumitrā. He is Rāma’s constant companion
LaṅkāRāvaṇa’s capital city, location of Sītā’s confinement
Lomapādavariant form of Romapāda
Madanaepithet of Kāma, the god of love
Maithilaepithet of Janaka
Maithilīwoman of Mithilā, epithet of Sītā, daughter of Janaka, wife of Rāma
Mānasalake on Mt. Kailāsa created by Brahmā; the Sarayū river flows from it
Mandaramountain used as the churning rod in the churning of the ocean
Māndavīelder daughter of Janaka’s brother, Kuśadhvaja, and wife of Bharata
Mantharādaughter of Virocana, said to have been killed by Indra
Manutraditionally considered the father of the human race and first man; he is the legendary founder of the Ikṣvāku dynasty
Mārīca Kāśyapasee Kāśyapa
Mārīcaa rākṣasa, son of Sunda and the yakṣa woman Tāṭakā. He becomes Rāvaṇa’s ally and aids in the abduction of Sītā
Marutssons of Diti, companions of Indra
Meghanādason of Rāvaṇa, also called Indrajit
Menāwife of Himalaya, mother of Ganges and Umā
Menakāan apsaras sent by Indra to seduce Viśvāmitra
MithilāJanaka’s capital city
Nalaname of a monkey who builds the bridge to Laṅkā for Rāma and his army, son of Viśvakarman
Nandigrāmathe village where Bharata lives during Rāma’s fourteen-year exile
Nāradathe divine messenger who reveals the Rāmāyaṇa story to the sage Vālmīki
Nārāyaṇaepithet of Viṣṇu
Niṣāda huntera tribal hunter who slays the male of a pair of mating krauñca birds, thus inspiring Vālmīki to compose the first śloka or verse of poetry. The Niṣādas are the people of Guha
Pākaa demon slain by Indra; the deed gives rise to the common epithet of the great god, Pākaśāsana, “Chastiser of Pāka”
Pampālake where Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa first encounter Hanumān and Sugrīva
Pārvatīepithet of Umā
Paulastyaa descendant of Pulastya, a common epithet of Rāvaṇa
piśācasa class of demons of a particularly low order
Rāghavaany descendant of Raghu, used especially of Rāma and his brothers
Raghuson of Kakutstha and ancestor of Rāma
rākṣasasa class of violent and bloodthirsty demons regarded as the implacable enemies of brahmanical culture and civilization. Their king is the ten-headed Rāvaṇa who rules from the splendid island-fortress of Laṅkā
Rāma Dāśarathieldest son of Daśaratha by Kausalyā and hero of the story
Rāma Jāmadagnyaknown also as Bhārgava Rāma or Paraśurāma. He is the son of the sage Jamadagni
Rambhāan apsaras who attempts to seduce Viśvāmitra, but is cursed by him
Rasātalaname of a hell
Rāvaṇamain antagonist of the Rāmāyaṇa. The rākṣasas’ ten-headed overlord who abducts Sītā
Ṛcīkaa Bhārgava sage, husband of Satyavatī and brother-in-law of Viśvāmitra
Rohiṇīdaughter of Dakṣa and favorite consort of the moon
Romapādaking of Aṅga and friend of Daśaratha. He is the father of Śāntā and the father-in-law of Ṛśyaśṛṅga
Ṛśyamūkathe mountain where Rāma meets the monkey Sugrīva
Ṛśyaśṛṅgathe innocent boy-sage, son of Vibhāṇḍaka and husband of Śāntā
Rudraepithet of Śiva
ŚabalāVasiṣṭha’s wish-fulfilling cow
Śabarīhermit woman who aids Rāma in his search for Sītā
Śacī’s lorda common epithet of Indra. Śacī is Indra’s wife
Sagaraan Ikṣvāku king, ancestor of Rāma, who has two wives, Keśinī and Sumati, and sixty thousand and one sons
Śakraa common epithet of Indra
Sampātivulture brother of Jaṭāyus who aids the monkeys in their search for Sītā
Sanatkumāraname of a seer who tells the Ṛśyaśṛṅga story
Śaṅkaraepithet of Śiva
ŚāntāRomapāda’s daughter and Ṛśyaśṛṅga’s wife
Śarabhaṅgaan ascetic whom Rāma, Sītā, and Lakṣmaṇa seek out after their en-counter with the rākṣasa Virādha
Sarayūname of a river that flows through the kingdom of Kosala
Śatānandason of Gautama and Ahalyā, preceptor of Janaka. He narrates the story of the conflict between Viśvāmitra and Vasiṣṭha
Śatrughnayoungest son of Daśaratha by Sumitrā. He is Bharata’s friend and constant companion
Satyavatīwife of Ṛcīka and sister of Viśvāmitra; she follows her husband to heaven and becomes the divine river Kauśikī
Saumitrison of Sumitrā, matronymic name of Lakṣmaṇa
Śivaone of the three main god (the “trinity”) of the Hindu pantheon, along with Brahmā and Viṣṇu. He is famed for his asceticism and is the husband of Umā (Pārvatī)
Somadāgandharva woman who attends Cūlin while he is practicing austerities, mother of Brahmadatta
Śrṅgaveraa city on the Ganges river ruled by the Niṣāda king, Guha
ŚrutakīrtīKuśadhvaja’s youngest daughter and wife of Śatrughna
Sthāṇuepithet of Śiva
Subāhua rākṣasa companion of Mārīca. He is slain by Rāma
Sugrīvaking of the monkeys, friend and ally of Rāma
Suketua yakṣa, the father of Tāṭakā
Sumantracharioteer and advisor to King Daśaratha
Sumatiyounger wife of Sagara, daughter of Ariṣṭanemi
Sumatidescendant of Viśāla and king of Viśālā
Sumitrāyoungest wife of Daśaratha and mother of Lakṣmaṇa and Śatrughna
Śunaḥśepamiddle son of Ṛcīka, a Bhārgava sage, who was sold by his parents to the Ikṣvāku king Ambarīṣa as a replacement for his sacrificial victim
Suparṇaepithet of Garuḍa
Suprabhādaughter of Dakṣa, wife of Brahmā, and mother of the Saṃhāras
Śūrpaṇakhāthe sister of Rāvaṇa; she attempts to seduce Rāma in the Pañcavaṭī forest
Sūryasun god, father of Sugrīva
Sutīkṣṇaa sage whom Rāma, Sītā, and Lakṣmaṇa visit during their exile
Tamasāriver near the Ganges on whose banks Vālmīki is said to have his ashram
Tārāwife of Vālin
Tāṭakāa yakṣa woman who is cursed to become a rākṣasa. She is the mother of the rākṣasa Mārīca. At Viśvāmitra’s behest, Rāma kills her
Trijaṭāa rākṣasa woman who comforts Sītā during her captivity
Tripuraname of the city of the demons, destroyed by Śiva
Triśaṅkuan Ikṣvāku king and ancestor of Rāma, who desires to obtain heaven in his mortal form
Triśirasa rākṣasa slain by Rāma
Tvaṣṭṛdivine craftsman of the Indian pantheon
Uccaiḥśravasdivine horse produced during the churning of the ocean, given to Indra
Umāwife of Śiva, daughter of the mountain Himalaya
Ūrmilādaughter of Janaka and wife of Lakṣmaṇa
Vaidehaepithet of Janaka
Vaidehīepithet of Sītā
Vainateyaa matronymic name of Garuḍa
Vairocanasee Bali
Vaiśravaṇadescendant of Viśravas, either Kubera, god of wealth, or Rāvaṇa, king of the rākṣasas
Vālinking of the monkeys, husband of Tārā, and son of Indra. He is the elder brother of Sugrīva
Vālmīkisage and composer of the Rāmāyaṇa
Varuṇagod of the ocean
VāruṇīVaruṇa’s daughter, produced during the churning of the ocean. She is the personification of wine
Vāsavaepithet of Indra
VasiṣṭhaDaśaratha’s family preceptor, rival of Viśvāmitra
Vāsudevaepithet of Viṣṇu, he assumes the form of the sage Kapila
Vāsukithe great serpent used as the rope in the churning of the ocean
Vāyugod of wind, who seduces the daughters of Kuśanābha
Vibhāṇḍakason of Kāśyapa and father of Ṛśyaśṛṅga
Vibhīṣaṇaa rākṣasa, brother of Rāvaṇa. He joins Rāma’s army and, after the defeat of the demon troops and the death of his brother, is installed by Rāma as king of Laṅkā
Videhaepithet of Janaka
vidyādharasclass of semi-divine beings. The women are famed for their beauty
Virādhaa rākṣasa, who, having attempted to abduct Sītā, is slain by Rāma
Virocanaasura king and ancestor of Bali whose daughter, Mantharā, is slain by Indra
Viśālason of Ikṣvāku and Alambuṣā, founder of Viśālā
Viśālāfamous city through which Rāma passes on his journey to Mithilā
Viśvakarmangod of craft, architect of the gods
Viṣṇuone of the three main gods of the Hindu “trinity,” along with Brahmā and Śiva. He is said to be incarnated on earth in the form of Rāma in order to kill the demon Rāvaṇa
Viśvāmitraan important sage in the Bālakāṇḍa. He serves as teacher and friend to Rāma, bestowing upon the young prince divine weapons. Originally a kshatriya, he becomes a brahman through his severe austerities
Vṛtraa demon slain by Indra
yakṣassemi-divine beings associated with Kubera. The women are known for their beauty
Yudhājitson of the king of the Kekayas. Sister of Kaikeyī and maternal uncle of Bharata